February 15, 2023
Introducing the Official Glossary of SKALE Network
Need a one-stop shop for all SKALE-related terminology? Welcome to SKALE’s official glossary! This resource was designed to define SKALE-specific terms for the community.
Application Specific Chains (AppChains)
Application Specific Chains aka AppChains serve as specialized blockchains for specific Dapps, delivering dedicated resources that optimize efficiency and performance. Each application operates in its autonomous chain, ensuring there's no competition over shared computational or storage resources. AppChains on SKALE are called SKALE Chains.
Archive nodes download and store an entire SKALE Chain state since genesis block and serve this data for indexing or querying.
BLS Threshold Signature
AKA Boneh–Lynn–Shacham (BLS) is a cryptographic threshold signature scheme that allows a user to verify that a signer is authentic. This provably secure method allows multiple parties to sign messages, and these resulting signatures are then aggregated and verified at scale.
Containerized Node Architecture
A unique containerized subnode structure unlocks enterprise-grade performance and offers dApp developers options on par with centralized systems, including elasticity, configurability, and modularity.
SKALE is both interoperable and built in an integrated manner with Ethereum. This integration brings security and reliability to the SKALE Network while also creating a shared revenue stream with Ethereum that brings value to both networks.
SKALE Hub Chains act as service stations to the Dapp chains. Rather than exchanges and marketplaces living on every single chain, which results in fragmented liquidity, Hubs are designed to provide liquidity, swapping, and marketplace services to Dapp chains. SKALE Hub chains are community run.
The four SKALE Hub Chains are:
🎨 Calypso NFT Hub
SKALE Hub Chain where the buying/selling/minting of NFTs takes place. Calypso Hub is currently the home of the first NFT marketplace on SKALE which is NFTrade.
💸 Europa Liquidity Hub
The SKALE Hub Chain for all things liquidity on SKALE. Europa Hub is where liquidity between tokens is managed and where users will on-ramp and off-ramp into the SKALEverse.
🎮 Nebula Gaming Hub
The SKALE Hub Chain for games that do not require the resources of a full chain. Nebula Hub is driven by leaders in the SKALE gaming community, this decentralized chain will house many games.
🌐 Titan Multi-Use Hub
The Titan Hub Chain is a community hub for other projects such as DAO's and other innovative products, supporting a wide variety of initiatives.
The SKALE IMA bridge allows users to transfer tokens to and from Ethereum and across SKALE Chains. The SKALE IMA bridge supports ETH, ERC-20, ERC-721, and ERC-1155 natively, and can be expanded to support other token standards or any other messaging logic. The IMA relies on validators to sign and verify messages between the Ethereum mainnet and SKALE and uses smart contracts running on Ethereum to manage the locking and unlocking of the deposit box on the mainnet.
Innovator Grant Program
SKALE awards grants to builders and Web3 projects who contribute to the development and growth of the SKALE ecosystem. The innovator program is for projects looking to build on SKALE Dapp-Specific Chains or Community Chains. Learn more about the innovator program and SKALE’s other grants programs here.
Ethereum mainnet has a finality time of approximately 6 minutes, which is not ideal for high transaction volume dApps. On SKALE Chains, blocks have instant finality. This significantly reduces MEV, time bandit attacks, and removes any issues from chain re-orgs that have plagued prior-generation blockchains that struggle with latency and slow finality.
Levitation Protocol is SKALE's fully-decentralized ZK scaling solution. The Levitation Protocol is designed to enhance the capabilities of the SKALE ecosystem, offering any operator of Zero Knowledge Proofs the opportunity to provide a decentralized ZK solution to application developers through a SKALE Chain. This new offering will give developers building on SKALE even more flexibility in configuring their applications within SKALE’s robust app-chain network, which already consists of over 20 EVM blockchains.
SKALE Network uses a linear scaling system where new virtualized subnodes can create new chains for the entire network. As each new node joins the network, system-wide computational power and capacity also increase. This allows for sustainable growth without network congestion issues.
SKALE Metaport is a widget that was created as a super fast, simple way for users to use the chain-to-chain bridging capabilities of the SKALE Network. Dapp users have a fast and simple way to move tokens of all sorts (ERC20, 721 and 1155) between SKALE Chains and between the Ethereum mainnet, and developers get a well-designed embeddable UI component that helps them interface with the API layers so that they can integrate this user-friendly experience into their Dapps.
SKALE’s modularity allows it to be especially decentralized and scalable while solving for gas fees and offering low latency. SKALE’s modularity is achieved via SKALE chain creation and node reassignments. With a single SKALE Chain capable of achieving a proven 397.7 TPS, 100 SKALE Chains can process 39,770 TPS, while 1000 Chains can process 397,700 TPS thanks to SKALE's modular architecture.
Multichain has several definitions. In SKALE’s case, multichain refers to the network of multiple (currently 19) SKALE Chains that make up the SKALE Network. These are interconnected EVM blockchains deployed from the SKALE manager on Ethereum mainnet. App-specific chains and shared community chains eliminate the need to compete for resources/block space.
The Network of Decentralized Economics (N.O.D.E.) Foundation is a non-profit entity based in Liechtenstein created to carry out the mission of supporting the SKALE Network open-source project.
SKALE enables dApps to store files locally on-chain which opens up new Web3 use cases. For example, NFT images can trustlessly be stored on-chain rather than in centralized cloud hosting platforms. On other blockchains without on-chain file storage, developers may need to pay for third party cloud storage, which also comes with privacy concerns.
Pooled Security (Shared Security)
The SKALE network uses a pooled validator model which allows it to leverage the security attributes of the entire network on behalf of each independent chain. This model leverages the security advantages offered by a large number of validator nodes by combining random node assignments with frequent node rotation among the validator sets. SKALE benefits from pooled security AND gains more security from its integration with Ethereum Mainnet.
Random Node Rotation
Validator nodes are randomly assigned and rotated to SKALE chains by a mainnet contract. This revolving process of random node rotation enables every configurable blockchain to leverage the security pool of the entire network on behalf of each chain, and provides additional collusion resistance. A SKALE chain’s security is decentralized among 16 or more nodes, and uses from 1/128th to all of a node’s resources, depending on the chain configuration.
sFuel is the native token on SKALE chains that serves as no-cost gas for any blockchain transactions. Since sFuel has no monetary value it enables free transactions on a SKALE chain, while still protecting against DDOS attacks. sFuel can be obtained for free via the sFuel Station, or through each dapp onboarding process.
SKALE users can attain free sFuel for SKALE transactions via the sFuel Station. Simply connect your wallet or input your address to automatically fill up across all supported SKALE Chains. Once filled up, you can interact with dApps on SKALE for free!
Individual blockchains that make up the SKALE Network are known as SKALE Chains. These app-specific EVM blockchains are interconnected and customizable based on developer needs. This allows for efficient partitioning of resources and no competition for block space.
The SKALE Network is governed by the SKALE DAO and is managed in a fully open and decentralized manner. There are over 50 unique companies, business entities, organizations, and DAOs that work to support, run, and govern the SKALE Network.
The Layer-1 megachain that will launch to support Levitation Protocol is known as SKALE G (G for Ganymede, the largest moon in the solar system) which is set to become the world's fastest and most scalable decentralized Layer-1 blockchain. SKALE G will feature L2 ZK hooks back to Ethereum, enabling developers to harness the power of this cutting-edge technology while maintaining a seamless connection to the Ethereum network.
SKALE Labs is the core team involved in creating the technical specs, creating the code, and growing the use and awareness of the network. SKALE Labs is headquartered in San Francisco, California.
The SKALE manager is a smart contract system on Ethereum mainnet that orchestrates and operates the SKALE Network. SKALE Manager controls Nodes, Validators, and SKALE chains. It also contains contracts for managing SkaleToken, Distributed Key Generation (DKG), and Verification of BLS signatures. It acts as the entry point for all other smart contracts on the SKALE network.
The web of interconnected SKALE chains is known as the SKALE Network.
The SKALE Oracle allows developers to access any external data source using the decentralized power of your SKALE Chain. If your dApp needs market data, weather temperatures, or Ethereum data, the SKALE Oracle provides a simple way to deliver this data to your Dapp.
The community of builders and users on SKALE makes up the SKALEverse. This includes the ecosystem of dApps, NFTs, community chains, gamers, creators, and developers. Explore the SKALEverse ecosystem here.
An initiative to integrate ZK as a configurable option for all developers deploying on the SKALE Network, in an effort to continue the pace of innovation and cover even more use cases. SKALE is uniquely positioned to implement ZK in a manner that is cost-effective and decentralized. Providing developers with all the tools they need is SKALE’s mission as an all-encompassing blockchain solution.
The SKALE token (SKL) is a hybrid use token that represents the right to work in the network as a validator, stake as a delegator, or access a share of its resources by deploying and renting a SKALE Chain for a period of time as a developer.
SKL token holders (delegators) stake their SKL tokens to validators who run nodes that make the SKALE network function by validating blocks, executing smart contracts, and securing the network. 33% of the total SKL supply is allocated to staking rewards.
Sync nodes download and sync states from a specific SKALE Chain and serve data upon request. They help dapps who require high loads of calls.
Validators are an important part of the SKALE ecosystem, as they confirm transactions and produce blocks. Since users don’t pay gas fees on SKALE, the validators get compensated from the dApp’s staked SKL. There are currently 45 validator organizations running approximately 160 SKALE nodes.
Zero Gas Fee Architecture
One of SKALE’s main advantages over other blockchains is its zero gas fee architecture. On SKALE chains, end users NEVER have to pay for their transactions, resulting in zero gas fees. This works because the validators are compensated (paid) by the dApps themselves, rather than by the users. SKALE does have a FREE gas token called sFuel, which is used to prevent spam attacks. Developers don't need to worry about their usage being inhibited by high transaction costs.
SKALE is the world's fastest blockchain, designed for fast, secure, user-centric Ethereum scaling. SKALE chains offer zero gas fees to end-users and have advanced features such as on-chain file storage, interchain messaging, zero-cost minting, ML/AI smart contracts, and enhanced security features.
The SKALE network enables developers to deploy their own EVM blockchain in minutes without sacrificing speed, security, or decentralization. Welcome to the SKALEverse.
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